BIOL 120 Supplemental Lecture and SAS Information

I. References regarding animal domestication and evolution:

1) Belyaev, D.K. 1979. Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication. The Journal of Heredity 70: 301-308.

Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Isalo National Park, Madagascar   © Callyn Yorke
Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Isalo National Park, Madagascar                    2008 Callyn Yorke

2)___________  1969. Domestication of Animals. Science Journal (U.K.) 5: 47-52.

3) ______ and L.N. Trut. 1982. Accelerating evolution. Science in the USSR 5: 24-29; 60-64.

4) Trut, L. N. 1999. Early Canid Domestication: The Farm-Fox Experiment. American Scientist 87: 160-169.

II. Review for Exam #1: (Sadava, et. al. 9th ed.: Chpt. 44;21;23;54; Dr. Yorke's lecture ) Key Words and Phrases:

cleavage, fertilization, gray crescent, incomplete cleavage, blastula experiments, Spemann's experiments, primitive streak, embryonic fates, human blastocyst, evo-devo, genetic switches, temperature dependent sex determination, Galapagos islands and natural selection, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, population bottleneck, gene pool, types of natural selection, Black-bellied Seedcracker, clover and cyanide, scale-eating fish, biological species concept, polyploidy in plants, Tragopogon speciation, prezygotic reproductive isolation, post zygotic reproductive isolation, speciation rates, evolutionary radiations, vicariant distributions, plate tectonics, principle of parsimony, world biogeographical regions, California biomes, oceanic vertical zonation.

III. Review for Exam #2: (Sadava, et. al. 9th ed.: Chpt. 22;28;29;30; Dr. Yorke's lecture) Key Words and Phrases:

phylogeny, taxonomy, systematics, homology, homoplasy,convergent evolution, ancestral, derived, outgroup, ingroup, principle of parsimony, Linnaean hierarchy, Corvus spp., earliest land plants, non-vascular plants, vascular plants, Rhyniophyta, Tracheophyta, Gymnosperm, Angiosperm, evolution of roots and leaves, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, alternation of generations, double fertilization, sporophyte, gametophyte, monoecious, dioecious, dicot, monocot, homosporous, heterosporous, secondary growth, Magnolia, Amborella, agents of dispersal, agents of pollination, megasporangium, microsporangium, pollen, egg, seed, fruit, Conifer, Cycad, Ginkophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta, chitin, Zygomycetes, Ascomyctes, Basidiomycetes, Chitridomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Claviceps, Puccinia, Rhizopus, Candida, Agaricus, Aspergillus, Penicillium, yeast, Yucca brevifolia, lichen.

IV. Review for Exam #3: (Sadava, et. al. 9th ed.: Chpt. 31;32;33;34;35;36;37; Dr. Yorke's lecture) Key Words and Phrases:

protostome, deuterostome, bilateral symmetry, coelom, cnidarian, flatworm life cycles, mollusc anatomy, incomplete metamorphosis, key features of Echinoderms and Chordates, Placoderm, Ostracoderm, highlights of vertebrate evolution, amniotic egg, endothermy, homiothermy, monocot, dicot, function of roots, vascular cambium, secondary growth, annual growth rings, leaf veins, water transport, Casparian strip, function of guard cells, stomata, aquatic plant adaptations, function of phloem, desert plant adaptations, composition of soil fertilizers, gametophyte, flower adaptations, self-fertilization in plants, anatomy of a flower, double fertilization, apical dominance, seed dormancy, regulation of plant development, plant auxins.

V. Review for Final Exam (Comprehensive): Key Words and Phrases:

animal development: basic definition and theory, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Evolutionary Theory, biological species, Linnean classification, phylogeny, Eumycota diversity, transition of plants to land, sporophyte, gametophyte, success of seed plants, monocot, dicot, animal classification, bilateral symmetry, radial symmetry, function of a circulatory system, comparisons among protostomes, water vascular system, chordate classification, function of roots, stems and leaves, annual rings, evaportation-tension-cohesion model, meiosis in flowering plants, cross fertilization, self fertilization, apical dominance, homeostasis, negative feedback systems, endocrine system of vertebrates, insect molt, significance of sexual reproduction, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, breathing at high elevation, mechanics of ventillation, open and closed circulatory systems, comparative vertebrate circulatory systems, learning and instinct, genetic control of behavior, behavioral deprivation experiments, hybridization and behavior, inclusive fitness, behavioral studies: various approaches, cooperative and selfish behavior, modes of animal communication.

ESSAY TOPICS: comparative embryology, Hardy Weinberg model, evolutionary radiations, evidence for evolution, plant evolution, protostome evolution, chordate evolution, physiological homeostasis, Sociobiology and human behavior.

VI: Sample SAS Questions and Topics (Dawkins, 2009)

* If no one has ever observed evolution actually occurring, how could it be a fact?

* What is the distinction between a scientific theory and an hypothesis? Give an example of each.

* Why is the term "sculpturing" misleading in reference to the evolution of living organisms?

* Using examples, explain why the concept of Natural Selection "flies in face" of Essentialism.

* What is the Darwinian survival value of floppy ears found in both Baylev's foxes and domestic dogs? Why might this question be the wrong one to ask?

* If the second hand of a clock rotates 60 times as fast as the minute hand, how much faster is the second hand than the hour hand? Show your work.

* What evidence supports the hypothesis that mammals and birds are more recently evolved than Foraminiferans and Radiolarians?

* How can we be certain that the Earth is about 4.6 billion years old and not 6,000 years old?

* Explain how Lenski's research on bacteria (E. coli) shows essential components of evolution by natural selection.

* How could Lenski be certain that two mutations were needed for a particular tribe of bacteria to show a significantly higher population density than the other eleven tribes?

* How did Endler and Resnick's work with guppies show how evolutionary change may result from competing aspects of natural selection?

* How would you refute claims that evolution cannot be true because there are too many missing links?

* Give specific examples of animals with land-dwelling ancestors that now in water. Wnat adaptations were retained and/or lost?

* What evidence supports Darwin's statement, " In a series of forms graduating insensibly from some apelike creature to man as he now exists,it would be impossible to fix on any definite point where the term "man" ought to be used."

* How does the fossil material assigned to Australopithecus afarensis compare with Homo Sapiens?

* Why do young chimpanzee skull features resemble adult humans more so than features of adult chimpanzee skulls?

* How did Oster, Sperry and other scientists show that development may proceed by local rules rather than by a linear blueprint?

* Give examples showing why proteins are significant in evolution.

* Aside from islands in the ocean, give examples of other natural situations that, from an evolutionary perspective, are considered islands. What specific forms of life may be found in the latter locations?

* If there were no fossil record, what other lines of evidence could be used to support Evolutionary Theory? Be specific and use examples.

*  Using diagrams for illustration, present at least two examples of homiomorphisms and explain why they can be used as evidence for evolution.

* Given that DNA  melts at 85C and that hybridized DNA (X-?) melts at a comparatively lower temperature, what is the percent (%) relatedness between each species sample A and B to the reference sample X, when sample A-X melts at 23C and   sample B-X melts at 65C? Show your work.

* In the above example, what is the relatedness between species A and B? Show your work.

* Why are examples of missing or dysfunctional body parts of certain animals supportive of evolutionary theory? Use specfic examples.

* What are some specific examples of "unintelligent design" found in the anatomy of vertebrate animals? How could such poorly designed structures have arisen and been maintained through the generations?

* In an evolutionary "arms race" say between a Cheetah and Thompson's Gazelle, would there ever be an end point? Explain.

* If the sensation of pain resulted from natural selection, should it be more intensely experienced by pre-reproductive rather than post-reproductive individuals? Explain.

* . What are the four memories archiving information in the biosphere? How has each one been modified by natural selection?

* What are the fundamental challenges facing scientists who seek an explanation of the origin of life?

* What sociological evidence does Dawkins cite to justify writing his book " The Greatest Show on Earth"?

* How well has Dawkin's presented the evidence for evolution by natural selection? Use examples.

* Using examples with supporting rationale, refute one of the following statements:

   a) The Earth is only 10,000 years old.

   b) All living creatures have descended from those rescued on a large boat after a major flood some thousands of years ago.

   c) Mankind was created separately from the rest of life on Earth.

* Should other explanations for the diversity of life (e.g. Lamarkianism, Creationism) be given equal weight with the theory of Evolution by Natural Selection in elementary school science curricula? Explain.